Note: International Posting. Nigerian nationals are strongly encouraged to apply.
Deadline: February 10, 2019
1. Background information
|1.1 Background on the context|
|Since 2009, northeast Nigeria has been characterized by complex and mixed displacements due to the ongoing conflict. According to OCHA (August 2017), unpredictable population movements and access continue to be major challenges for humanitarian agencies to respond in a timely and targeted manner to the humanitarian crisis in the northeast. About 1.7 million people are currently displaced by the insurgency in Borno, Adamawa, and Yobe states, with the majority residing in Borno (77%). As a result of these situations, the demand for long term solutions along with emergency humanitarian support are increasing.
EE Education in northeast Nigeria is a sensitive phenomenon due to deliberate and targeted attacks on formal schools. This study aims to explore to what extent a conflict-sensitive approach to education is feasible in the northeast Nigerian context so as to ensure that humanitarian interventions offer a wide range of flexible options. The Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE) defines Conflict Sensitive Education (CSE) as taking into consideration the context in which the education policy/programme takes place, analyzing the two-way interaction between the context and the education policy/programme, and acting to minimize negative impacts and maximise positive impacts of education policies and programming on conflict, within an organization’s given priorities.
|1.2 NRC’s activities and presence|
|The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) is a non-governmental, humanitarian organization with 60 years of experience in helping to create a safer and more dignified life for refugees and internally displaced people.
NRC initiated country operations in Nigeria in June 2015, in order to respond to the critical and increasing needs in the country as a result of the conflict between armed groups, such as Boko Haram and counterinsurgency efforts. NRC has an implementation office based in Maiduguri and a coordination office in Abuja. NRC in Nigeria is currently providing services across various core competencies namely Shelter and Non-Food Items (NFI); Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion (WASH); Education; Food Security; and Information, Counselling and Legal Assistance (ICLA) in order to address identified humanitarian needs.
|1.3 NRC’s intervention specific to the study|
|NRC is a leading organisation within the field of Education in Emergencies (EiE) both as an advocate and as a practitioner. As an advocate, NRC has called for education to be regarded as the ‘5th component’ of humanitarian assistance in line with food, water, health, shelter, and to plan, prioritise and protect education in humanitarian emergencies and conflict situations. NRC’s specific expertise in the field of EiE includes teacher training, catch-up/accelerated education programs, and youth education and training programs.
NRC’s engagement in education interventions started in early 2018 with activities in Borno and Adamawa states. An initial programme assessment conducted in August 2015 identified context risks and recommended engagement once the context and needs of communities were fully understood. Since 2009, northeast Nigeria has been faced by a security-related crisis. Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe States were mostly affected. The humanitarian crisis in northeast Nigeria remains severe due to ongoing conflict, continued internal displacement, and the unpredictable return of refugees from neighbouring countries. New displacements have been reported since October 2017 in Borno State and northern Adamawa State, with influxes of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Pulka, Gwoza, Ngala, Monguno, Askira/Uba, Konduga, Bama and Mafa most notably..
NRC is implementing Youth Education and Training Programs in Maiduguri, Borno state to empower out-of-school youth with vocational skills and access to local markets. In Adamawa State, NRC is supporting two schools in EiE in Mubi North Local Government Area (LGA). In addition, NRC is providing Alternative Education (AE) programming, targeting out-of-school children with numeracy and literacy skills in Maiduguri.
Following the insurgency, systematic attacks on educational – institutions have ravaged the already poor educational system in the northeast. According to the 2018 Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO), there are 11.3 million children between 3 and 17 years old in 6 states in northeast Nigeria. 29% of them are out-of-school children aged between 6 and 17 which is approximately 3.3 million. Borno state is estimated to have a literacy rate of just about 29%, implying that a large number of out-of-school children and youth, with limited literacy and numeracy skills, have little hope of ever joining the formal work force. Seventy-two percent of children within the school- going age have never attended school in Borno, compared with less than 3 percent in most of southern Nigeria.
M Most out-of-school children attend the Almajiri Education System where they receive an Islamic education. Displaced populations have used many of the schools in the areas of displacement as temporary lodging. The consequence has been the disruption of educational activities for years, in places where alternative living areas couldn’t be provided. Where alternative living spaces have been established, educational activities are slowly resuming.
In Borno State where NRC has consolidated its major operations, approximately 1.3 million people are now displaced either internally or to the neighbouring countries. Approximately 0.5 million have returned back to their homes. Three patterns of displacements have been observed: into official camps; into unofficial camp-like settlements; and displacement within the host population.
The 2018 Humanitarian Needs Overview indicates that 750,000 children and teachers remain internally displaced, of which 280,000 live in camps or camp-like settings. In addition, 750,000 children in communities hosting IDPs are also in need as they struggle to cope with their already severely limited resources, the increased demand and overcrowding in classrooms. The children are particularly exposed to the worst forms of violence and exploitation, including killing, maiming, abductions, forced recruitment into armed groups and sexual violence. Security and other challenges continue to affect the delivery of life-saving services in hard-to-reach areas.
Against this background, an immediate Education in Emergencies (EiE) response has been identified as critical given over 600,000 children have lost access to learning since 2013, and 825,700 were made vulnerable through security-related crisis and displacement. These children are at risk of losing their right to education.
This study therefore aims 1) to understand how the sensitivity of education in northeast Nigeria affects access, and 2) to guide humanitarian actors on how best to provide education through a conflict- sensitive approach. In addition, the study seeks to provide an understanding of the impact of attacks on schools and the communities’ perception of education on access to education during and after displacement.
2. Purpose of the study and intended use
|2.1 Overarching purpose|
|The purpose of the study is to develop guidelines that will inform NRC and other stakeholders in providing conflict-sensitive education in northeast Nigeria.
The consultant will also conduct a Training of Trainers (ToT) for the EiE Working Group (EiE WG) and NRC staff on conflict-sensitive education as part of NRC’s response plan on providing conflict-sensitive education.
|2.2 How will the study be used?|
|This study is part of a larger ongoing programming currently being implemented with funding from UNICEF. Findings and recommendations from the study will be used by the NRC education team and country management group (CMG) to guide program implementation and strategies in northeast Nigeria and in the region as applicable.
Furthermore, the reports will be shared with the Nigeria EiEWG and the Ministry of Education in order to enhance their support to conflict- sensitive quality education.
In addition, the findings of the study will also be useful for community members, government agencies, policy makers, international and local NGOs, civil society individuals, practitioners, partners, education working group and the donors.
3. Scope and lines of inquiry
|This study is funded by The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and would involve carrying out a study on conflict-sensitive education in Borno, Adamawa, and Yobe States in northeast Nigeria. Data collection is expected to span the three states in northeast Nigeria. Specific LGAs for data collection will be decided based on the latest access and operational updates and security clearance.
The study will provide a clear understanding of the impact of adopting a conflict-sensitive approach on education and provide guidance on EiE approaches in northeast Nigeria, where education is a sensitive issue. Access, acceptance, and security barriers are some key parameters to be explored throughout the study. The consultant(s) will develop conceptual models that suggest pathways and mechanisms to achieving improved access, acceptance, and quality education among conflict-affected populations.
The study will be followed up with a Training of Trainers for the EiE WG on conflict-sensitive education as part of NRC’s response plan on using this approach in northeast Nigeria.
The findings of the study will feed into the TOT training by informing its content and delivery methods. Based on the study findings, the consultant will be required to design and conduct a one-week workshop that will build the training capacity of NRC education staff and other implementing partners. The aim of the ToT workshop will be to disseminate skills and knowledge to the participants so that they can train teachers in the field. The workshop will expose participants to a range of methodologies and techniques that are a prerequisite to the delivery of conflict-sensitive education in emergency contexts.
|3.2 Lines of inquiry|
|The study will examine (but are not limited) to exploring the following questions:
4. Methodology >> Read full job description and how to apply here.